Protective structures of civil defense: meaning and classification


    1. Introduction.
    2. Requirements for protective structures of civil defense.
    3. Classification of civil defense protective structures.
    4. Shelter equipment.


A civil defense shelter is a specific shelter to protect people from munitions, radiation, nuclear and radioactive weapons. Shelters will be able to protect people from biological weapons, floods, chemical weapons, radiation, shrapnel. 

It is the responsibility of every citizen to be aware of shelters, their types, purposes and equipment to keep themselves and their loved ones safe in the event of a probable threat. 

The use of civil defense structures is one of the main ways to protect people. Their most widespread use was during the Great Patriotic War, which helped save the lives of many children.

Protective structures of civil defense

Requirements for protective structures of civil defense

Civil defense protective structures must guarantee protection from:

  • biological weapons;
  • toxic substance;
  • radioactive substance;
  • radiation of radiation;
  • nuclear weapons.

The shelter protects the population from the risk of collapse of a collapsed building, the effects of high temperatures during fires.

Protection from debris and destroyed buildings is provided by walls, sealed doors.

The shelter must be equipped to keep people in it for a long time until the fire is extinguished or the radiation is reduced. It is provided not only with filtered ventilation so that people can breathe, but also with power supply, plumbing, heating, sewage, water supplies, and essential foodstuffs.

To protect the population from toxins, biological substances and exposure to radiation, the shelter is sealed and equipped with filtration ventilation equipment. It purifies the air and prevents toxic air from penetrating into the interior through small cracks.

Classification of civil defense protective structures

Depending on the location, shelters can be built-in or freestanding. Built-in shelters are located in the basement of buildings and are the most common type of shelter. Such shelters are often completely buried in the ground, which will reduce the pressure of the shock wave.

Separate types of protective constructions are located in the territory of factories, in the yard, park. There are no emergency exits in these shelters because they are located far away from likely debris.

Protective construction of civil defense must contain such documents: log, passport, instructions for use, plan.

Shelters are grouped by purpose, timing of construction (pre-built and quickly built), supply of filtering ventilation system, location, capacity, protective functions.

A civil defense shelter

Shelter equipment

One of the most important protection parameters is the time to fill the structure during an «Air Alarm». To reduce this time, the room should be equipped with two entrances.

In order to protect people from the shock wave, resistant protective hermetic metal doors are placed at the entrance because the entrance is the most unprotected place in such a facility.

Intelligent installation of the entrances ensures that the structure fills quickly.

The most important task in the installation of structures is to provide the population with the right amount of air, ready for inhalation during a probable contamination or fire. The air supply system can protect people from smoke, biological agents, chemical toxins, and radioactive substances. It also heats or cools the air, humidifies it, and oxygenates it.

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