- Types of protective fortifications and the need for a ventilation system.
- Ventilation equipment and filters for shelters.
- Application of absorber filters for air purification.
- Peculiarities of ventilation system design in shelters.
In wartime conditions, during the construction of civilian infrastructure, special attention is paid to shelters, which may be located inside the building or nearby. They are arranged in accordance with approved safety standards.
Bomb shelters are designed to shelter people from shock waves, debris, and the effects of chemical attacks or radiation contamination. The ventilation system of civil defense protective structures must be designed according to standardization norms, using the necessary filtration equipment.
Military actions on the territory of Ukraine dictate new living conditions and safety rules. In theory, civil defense shelters capable of preventing chemical, radiation or biological damage should be located in every settlement of the country and meet such requirements:
- meet sanitary and hygienic conditions for human occupancy;
- have at least two emergency exits;
- provide protection from all damaging factors (shockwave, debris, radiation, chemical contamination, including from industrial plants);
- be equipped with quality ventilation, which includes filters for shelters, such as AC 15920 (analogue of FPU-200), designed to clean the air and its access to the premises of the protective structure.
The ventilation system of protective structures of civil defense is calculated taking into account such factors as:
- technical features of the room;
- type of shelter (closed or open);
- number of occupants;
- purpose of the room for peacetime use.
Open-air bomb shelters (underground parking lots, underpasses) are suitable for short-term sheltering of the population and can only protect against debris and shock waves.
Closed-type shelters are used for prolonged stay in conditions of nuclear or chemical attack. People can stay in them for two days. A quality ventilation system using filtration equipment in these types of facilities is a key requirement.
Статья по теме: «Protective structures of civil defense: meaning and classification»
Ventilation of enclosed protective equipment includes special filters-absorbers AC 16 543 (analogue of FP-300), which prevent the penetration of radioactive particles, hazardous chemicals, toxic biological vapors.
In the process of designing air filtration systems, specific equipment must be used. These are:
- antidust filters;
- regenerative cartridges;
- air ducts and fans;
- hermetic valves;
- air intake ducts capable of multiple modes of operation;
- filter-ventilation kits.
Given the risk of de-energizing cities during military operations, mechanical types of ventilation are preferred.
The use of filter-absorbers when installing a ventilation system is due to the need to protect the bomb shelter from the most dangerous compounds resulting from enemy attacks. Absorber filter AC 16 543 (analogue of FP-300) cleans the air coming through the fortifications from:
- radioactive dust;
- poisons and chemicals;
- paralytic gases;
- toxic substances;
- bactericidal aerosols.
Filter-absorber AC 15 920 (analog FPU-200) is universal for equipment of ventilation system of bomb shelters. It facilitates cleaning from radioactive particles, which arise as a result of nuclear defeat of territories.
The adsorbent copes with chemical and biological poisons. The filter is capable of purifying 200 cubic meters of air per hour.
In bomb shelters isolated from oxygen access from the outside, a regeneration system must be used inside. Regenerative cartridges are single-use equipment for cleaning the air masses from CO2. In this case, the supply of oxygen is carried out with the help of oxygen cylinders. The equipment is used in enclosed shelters, as well as protective structures at nuclear power plants.
Design and installation of shelters can be carried out using filter-ventilation kits (FVK1, FVK2). They operate in two protection modes and are able to provide the protective construction with the capacity of not more than 150 people with air supply. Such kits include:
- AC 16 543 (analogue of FP-300) or AC 15 920 (analogue of FPU-200) or AC 17 383 (analogue of FP-100U);
- thrust-pressure gauge;
- mounting parts.
The filtration sets can operate with purification capacity from 300 to 1200 m3, depending on the operation mode. Their dust purification efficiency is not less than 97%.
The ventilation system is also responsible for the microclimate in the shelter. If improperly designed, humidity can rise and temperature can drop in a protective structure, in which case it is important to take care to have a dehumidifier.
Ventilation and filtration in bomb shelters is essential for survival in a tense wartime environment. That is why the arrangement of civil defense protective structures should only be handled by professional engineers. And the materials and equipment used must be of high quality and meet the standards.